4 Feb 2012

Contextual studies

Area of manufacturing

• fashion Street 7th Avenue trade area high-end

 who supplies the designer?

How New York industry developed and cam to existence, where is manufacturing done?

 Who are the designers? Who are the manufacturers? Supply the demand?
Does this industry still exist or has it moved away to somewhere cheap in terms of manufacturing?

Label manufacturing, [London, from fashion centres from New York, to outsourcing

 how fashion changed to assist manufacturing?

 London garment industry

New York common industry's. [ who are the people that make the garments.

London Saville Row,  famous as the face of high end tailoring industry (handmade and bespoke products., a lot of small streets around that the supplied them.

Who are the artists, handmade, production, batch production,  Batch production, up-and-coming designers, how fashion scenes change!

 how NYC industry started? Does this industry still exist to move to somewhere cheaper.

Global shift of manufacturers outsources making garment out of country to reduce costs.

 I was watching Saville Row on BBC2 from University Library

 it was interesting to see how bespoke tailors who hand make all garments to client specifications where up against mass manufactured Abercrombie and Fitch (Hollister)

It was interesting to know Saville Row don't advertise they rely on word of mouth and reputation and Abercrombie & fitch know advertising is everything.

 'I'm reading fashion design by Elizabeth Bye'

 page 130

 North America New York

 New York was a manufacturing center in the city of immigrants of the start of the 20th century. The city graph the financial centre, attracting individuals with and interesting culture and the arts. These elements provided the foundation for 2, Frey thing fashion centre. Paris had had been the main city of fashion, providing inspiration for New York manufacturers, he copied its designs. And to New York appeal change began to occur during World War II when inspiration from Paris is no longer available industry began to live for local talent. Parsons school of design provided trained employees, 1944 leading women fashion industry established a fashion great internationally 1931 to promote industry groups of women. They made common actions across New York retail business, fashion press, cosmetic industry and cultural, this snatches development of New York City is the fashion  Center.

The garment district around 7th Avenue, now referred as fashion Avenue, was established allowing manufacturers, suppliers, trade organisations, distributors, and retailers to operate in close proximity, facilitating communication and reducing costs.

 New York fashion shows, awards and the special vents the publicised internationally, the city became named for sportswear, original style of dress that reflected more casual, relaxed lifestyle of American women. Ready to wear sportswear manufacturers with rising, the social and economic change of the 1960s increase the demonstrable individualised styles of dress. Designers moved from anonymous employees of the manufactures to own their own businesses.

 I'm reading 'Unravelling the Rag Trade' by Jan Rath.

Page 131

" the garment industry has been the most important to the manufacturing sector in New York City since mid-19th century hundred 50 is evolved into a highly flexible, competitive trade, highly paid professionals and poorly paid labor.

Immigrants being vital to production as workers and knowledge commands. During postwar era New York garment industry suffered a major downturn with sustainable loss of employment. Intensified labor competition pressure lower end of industry. Contractor's face reduced profit,  higher risk. Sweatshops difficult immigrant owners to move up in the industry as lack of education  & capital , management expertise & connections in industry.

 New York City has been the centre of fashion in the United States since the late 19th century. As ready-to wear became more effective and  celebrated as part of the way of life in New World,  New York rapidly became indisputable  centre for factory garment manufacturing.  Immigrants have shaped the garment industry in New York City from its very start. Many immigrants groups in New York Way involved in this trade, including Jews and Italians at the turn-of-the-century, and you at Chinese group since the 1960s.

 Neil's common industry is suffered a preset just downturn since the late 1950s and tens of take to employment in the 5 core areas, as well as this relative position among other major metropolitan centres within the country. Yet, the industry remained the largest manufacturing sector in New York City at the end of the 1990s. Has continued to be defined as this quite essential immigrant trade, a good magnetic tried waves of new immigrants.

Page 116
 Development of the Garment industry in New York City

 The dominance of New York over the American, Garment industry emerged in the 19th century. As in other manufacturing sectors, New York outperformed cities such as Boston, Philadelphia ,Location with deep seaports and access to Vast hinterlands of the Great Lakes region. Concentrated in New York City than any of the sexes of manufacturing the United States. By 1890, 44%  ready made clothes in the  place in the United States were manufactured in New York.

 employment in the New York comment industry peaked during the 2nd world war when New York produced 70% of the unit prior stresses in the United States.

Yet the high wages and unionised workers also contributed to the garment industries decline in New York. Although it was not clear until the late 1950s New York's dominance in the garment trade had in fact been  eroding since the 1930s. (Green 1997).

 The restriction of immigration after the 1920s and the success of the garment workers Union faith led to a steady wage rise in New York. The  the standardised mass production into the comic industry left New York and went in search of cheap labor publications versus surrounding states and then to the south, where labor was for to be docile and in abundant supply. Since the 1960s, Mass., such as 5 internationalized Asia and Latin America. Importing clave being accounted for less than $.15 the United States mocking the 1960s, but grew to save a team sent in the 1980s. Nowadays, craving cells in the United States bad labels from federal countries led for the world. There will say steep declines in common employment, and the textual number of New York, workers on the payroll declines in 1998 to less than 4% of what was in the 1973.

A sizable section of the fashion it just race to the New York City have especially the more fashion orientated segments in particular women's and girls out 12. (To mass production. And this less likely to move offshore. Women's after West has become an increasingly central parts of the New York common industry, employing about 70% of the the garment labour force in 1998, the common industry was still the number 1 manufacturing sector in the New York at the end of the 1990s. new york city continues to occupy the top positions in garments produced within the United States.

 The resilience of New York's garment  manufacturing depends, as in the past , on agglomeration and immigration (waldinger 1986)

New York City's garment industry is currently fresh the soaring real estate prices of the late 1990s. Due to the demonstrable office space in Manhattan, the rent in the garment district is risen to the level unaffordable to many common makers. According to a report by Center for an urban future, for the 1st time ever, in 1998 fashion industry employees make them can teach Judy denied charity of the employees the midtown fashion district. Chinatown, another centre of garment manufacturing, facing the real estate pressure.As a result many garment times may tell Manhattan to after bars like Queens and Brooklyn last estate to New Jersey. The talk fusion might well give a face to play to New York City's competitiveness in the garment industry, although it is still too early to assess its overall effect.

Another fact in the persistence of the garment industry in New York City is, of course the  supply of cheap immigrant labor. Such of immigrants since 1965  provided a fresh inflow of labour formation last in America. The decline of of the manufacturing segment to us in the city, the garment industry has become all the more attractive to for unskilled immigrants.

 manufacturers purchase materials, design,, assemble and finish the final project, I market it for retailers.
 Job is the outsourcing manufacturers, doing everything manufacturers did fit assemble and finished the garment.  This is contracted out to contractors hip-hop, make, trim and do the fishing. Since manufacturers will say frequently some contract the common assembly to contract is, the difference between manufacturers and Job as is probably in their production capacity for robber than it in their practice. The retailers are usually the major fashion chains of department stores who do the marketing of final sales. The retailers trace the fashion cycles and Smit will does to manufacturers and jobless. Slightly over half the garment revenues is absorbed by the retailers.
 Since the 1980s, mergers and acquisitions have juiced the number of retailers as a result they have gained a great deal of authority as regards dictating the price paid manufacturers. Some major retailers such as Macy's also started there in private labels in addition to selling assortment of other manufacturers labels, sent Saturday have to become manufacturers. Manufacturers, jobbers, retailers combined to occupy the professional most profitable end of the industry's.

 Angelina 1990s, the common industry New York City was faced with unprecedented pressure from a stagnant domestic market and intense international competition. Slave population growth, the grocery ageing American population, the trend towards casual wear women's amend claims led to the death of practical growth in the peer will purchasing. And if hand, they improve transportation and communication, competitive business infrastructure, distribution networks themselves this this increased the competitiveness of offshore producers.  There increasingly capable of producing sophisticated fashion apartheid is closing in short time and the low costs. The In timing, service, and quality between offshore and domestic producers has marriage considered to Billy. These developments have forced New York, make us to focus even more in the high-value added products, striving official to lead times, more styles, high quality, best service in environment current size by etc. to do lifecycle fashion products.

 • the garment industries being the most important manufacturing sector in New York City since the mid-19th century. Ever the last  150 years and has evolved into a highly flexible, competitive  and with highly paid professionals and poorly paid labourers. Throughout its evolution, immigrants have always been devised force in garment production . During the post war era  New York garment industry suffered a major downturn, with the sustainable loss of employment. women's garments, especially in my seasonal and fashionable part of the industry, have remained in New York City.

Intensified global  competition pressure at the low end of the industry.

• London Manufacturing
 page 49

 London has a high level of immigrants in the Garment industry.
 17th-century, Eastern European Jewish refugees in the late 19  century, and  Cypriot  in the late 20th century. pressers  and machinists  in the garment  workshops  of Londons  East End and for many it was an important step in state. The singer sowing machine first retailed in 1853 's gave the big fish to high working on the piece rate system in the late 19th century London, Beijing on centuries-old traditions of subcontracting in areas such as the Lancaster Cotton district and the London tailoring and lace industries.
  Hackney the sector is a major manufacturing employer, and especially in the sub sectors such as Taylor's men's and women's web it remains a major centre for United Kingdom's wife production.–Specific factors in the continuing tea of the London, an industry that derived from the historical relationship between buyers, manufactures and fashion houses in the West End of London and contractors in the East End and North London. Small batch production.

  the garment industry in the United Kingdom has been it to remain onshore, by minimising labor costs. This has been done by equiping factors with the best available technology,  Purchasing fabrics from the lowest cost sources, and making use of local contractors. In doing so, the industry could strengthen quality  minimize delivery times. This process is driven by highly concentrated garment retail sector. Marks & Spencer's, and is historical commitment to a made in the United Kingdom policy. Marks & Spencer is currently place text on common folders to the value of 5.7 billion, about 70% of which are currently produced in the United Kingdom. In the 1980s this was significantly higher at 90% of sales.
 Marks & Spencer's opening off this applies to outsource more of that production board for the 1st time in May 1998. This took considerable pressure on Marks & Spencer's domestic supplies. Supplies  put pressure on  their manufacturers and they intern on their contractors is to remain price competitive in the face of the global competition.

Outsourcing. Enterprise is sensitive to price competition [quantity production] have resulted to a more expansive system of  subcontracting to low-cost production centre such as Cyprus, Asian things enterprises in the West Midlands and increasingly, to Eastern Europe and North Africa.

 in the 1960s, hackney  garment  industry employed 30,000 people, but by the mid-1990s the about 3002. Someone employed in the Bronx. This decrease was a common feature of manufacturer ring industry in general. In the 1980s and 1990s Hackney's unemployment rate was 20%. That the  urban regeneration steps included developing a garment manufacturing the same in Dalston to promote flexible specialise ancient, when forcing the links between chain store such as  Marks & Spencer's or mother care and the local garment manufactures, and  Promoting the local manufacturing activities on the Broadway market.

By Jan Rath  ' unraveling the rag trade'  immigrant entrepreneurship in 7 world cities

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